Digital Competence in the Knowledge Society
- Gallardo-Echenique, E. E.
- de Oliveira, J. M.
- Marqués-Molias, L.
- Esteve-Mon, F.
New Information and Communication Technologies such as the Internet, online gaming worlds, artificial intelligence, robotics and 3D printing require new literacies. In recent years, digital competence has become a key concept in discussions on the kind of skills and understanding learners need in the Knowledge Society. The concept has been interpreted in various ways (e.g. Digital Literacy, Digital Competence, eLiteracy, e-Skills, eCompetence, Computer literacy, and Media literacy) in policy documents, in the academic literature, and in teaching, learning and certification practices. In this paper we review the literature on digital competence and related terms. This review of 73 articles published between 1990 and 2014 shows that digital competence is a multi-faceted concept that has emerged from several backgrounds. Not yet a stable concept, there are still no clear guidelines for evaluating it. While some perceive digital competence as the technical use of ICT, others define it more broadly as knowledge application or 21st century skills.